SARANNO GIURISTI

Impresa familiare

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    Guerriera della luce

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    Scioglimento: precisazioni

    Per la costituzione e lo scioglimento di un'impresa familiare, ex art. 230 bis c.c., non occorre una forma particolare, essendo sufficiente la manifestazione di volontà, espressa o tacita, dei partecipanti, i quali devono però essere muniti della qualità di coniuge, parente entro il terzo grado o affine entro il secondo grado. Così come la nascita dell'impresa familiare non deriva dalla mera qualità di familiare, ma appunto da una manifestazione di volontà dei partecipanti, allo stesso modo la cessazione dell'impresa stessa può verificarsi nonostante il perdurare della qualità di familiare, qualora intervenga una manifestazione di volontà contraria a quella che ne ha determinato la costituzione.
    Posto, dunque, che la forma scritta non è un requisito necessario né per la costituzione né per la cessazione dell'impresa familiare, nel caso che ci occupa, pare doversi dire che la cessazione dell'impresa debba avvenire nella forma prevista per la sua costituzione.
    L'eventuale scioglimento dell'impresa con una forma diversa rispetto a quella utilizzata per la costituzione, potrebbe ingenerare una situazione di incertezza in merito ai rapporti giuridici sorti durante la vita della impresa.
    Se, infatti, per la costituzione dell'impresa i partecipanti avevano scelto la forma della scrittura privata autenticata, la manifestazione di volontà degli stessi partecipanti nel senso dello scioglimento dell'impresa dovrà avvenire nelle stesse forme, in modo da eliminare qualsiasi dubbio soprattutto nei confronti dei terzi ai quali sarà sempre opponibile la scrittura privata autentica dal notaio.


    Seppiett@ the origin@l


    So (quasi) sempre ciò che voglio; non ho paura di esprimere le mie idee (quasi sempre); non mi spaventa il confronto con le vipere (quasi mai);
    a parte le malattie non ho mai paura (quasi mai);
    è questo quasi ricorrente che mi disturba.

    Dico sì alle decisioni da cui non si torna indietro. So quel che voglio e chi sa quel che vuole mi conquista.
    Dico sì alle mani e alla testa doloranti dopo aver scritto e studiato per ore, perchè prima o poi porteranno al trionfo.
    Dico sì a sfruttare il dono della vita e di madre natura. E a farlo intensamente.
    Dico sì a poter essere quello che mi pare e piace.
    Dico sì alla sveglia. Dico sì alla mia storia. Combatto e vivo.
    Dico sì e lo ripeto. Sì.

    (libera rielaborazione ed ispirazione da una campagna pubblicitaria Nike)
     
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    SCHEMA SUL FONDO PATRIMONIALE

    LA FAMIGLIA DIR PRIVATO


    LA NATURA GIURIDICA DEL FONDO PATRIMONIALE
    . La natura giuridica del fondo patrimoniale . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    2.1.1. Fondo o vincolo?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    La costituzione del fondo e i versamenti successivi.
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Il fondo atipico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    2. La natura giuridica dell’atto di destinazione. . . . . . . . .
    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    . La causa complessa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    .. Contratto a titolo oneroso. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . Il fondamento della gratuità . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . L’accostamento alla fondazione . . . . . . . . . .
    . Riferimenti giurisprudenziali di legittimità . . .
    . Le sentenze 107/90 e 11449/90 della Cassazione.



    LA COSTITUZIONE
    . La costituzione del fondo patrimoniale . . . . . . . La forma: negozi inter vivos e negozi mortis causa. . . . .
    . Atto Pubblico. . . . . Il pubblico ufficiale rogante. . . La forma degli atti di attribuzione: le varie teorie
    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    .. Testamento . . . 1. L’intervento del pubblico ministero . . . . La volontaria giurisdizione . Precetto, omissione e conseguenze . . . .. Limitazioni alla destinazione. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


    I RAPPORTI CON ISTITUTI DIVERSI
    I rapporti con istituti diversi . . . . . . . . . La successione. .. . . . Riduzione e Collazione. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 La sostituzione fedecommissaria . . . . .. Il fallimento: cenni e rinvio . . . . . L’azione revocatoria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . La dote . . . . . 11449/90 della Cassazione
    ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________-_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



    L’oggetto del fondo patrimoniale . .beni immobili . . . . . Le prescrizioni urbanistiche: edifici . . . . . . 1. I terreni . . . .1. Il testo unico dell’edilizia e la legge Lunardi . . .. Le menzioni fiscali. . . .. Violazione della norma urbanistica: conseguenze. Il contratto preliminare .. I mobili iscritti in pubblici registri. . L’art. 2915 cod. civ. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.__________________ _____________________________________________________________________________-
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________5. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________L’AMMINISTRAZIONE E LA DISPOSIZIONE DEI BENI DEL FONDO
    . Introduzione . . . . . . . . .. Generalità: la disciplina previgente . . . . . . . Il rinvio alla disciplina della comunione legale . . . . . .
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________

    . La gestione comune . .. La tipologia degli atti di amministrazione . . . . . . . . . . 2
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . L’ordinaria amministrazione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    I terzi contraenti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . La straordinaria amministrazione. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . Contrasto tra coniugi ed intervento giudiziale . . . . . . Procedimento e competenza . . . . . . . . . . . Il rapporto tra la disciplina del fondo e quella della
    comunione legale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________. . . Deroga all’amministrazione congiunta . . . . . .
    . I presupposti dell’autorizzazione. .
    .. Il reimpiego e gli effetti verso i terzi . . . .. L’utilizzo dei frutti: norme di amministrazione.
    . La natura del vincolo sui frutti. .
    . La donazione . . .


    L’ ESECUZIONE E LA GARANZIA PATRIMONIALE
    1. Generalità: contemperamento dei bisogni della famiglia e
    tutela dei creditori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________7..
    La causa del credito .


    . . .. La fonte dell’obbligazione: i debiti nascenti da fatto
    illecito. . ..1. I crediti dell’Erario . . 1. Limiti soggettivi all’azione esecutiva. . . . . . L’onere probatorio e le modalità di paralizzazione dell’azione esecutiva. . . . Limiti oggettivi: i bisogni della famiglia . . .. Le spese per l’attività imprenditoriale dei coniugi.

    . Gli atti compiuti dai coniugi in violazione delle regole di amministrazione. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Il beneficium excussionis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________.
    . La tutela dei creditori . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________. . . .. Il momento di creazione del vincolo, con riferimento
    ai crediti sorti anteriormente . . . . . .

    . Le garanzie reali e i privilegi .
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . I meccanismi di tutela del credito. . . . . . . . . . La revocatoria ordinaria . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________ . Gli atti di disposizione ai sensi dell’art. 2901 codice civile . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________

    . L’oggetto della garanzia patrimoniale sotto il profilo temporale . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________7.. La data di insorgenza del credito . . . . . . . . .+
    L’importanza della natura dell’atto. . . . . . . . Il pregiudizio. . . . . . Il consilium fraudis . 1. La simulazione e l’actio nullitatis . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________7
    Un caso di simulazione relativa . . . . . . . . .

    . L’actio nullitatis: il contratto in frode alla legge.
    . L’abuso . . . . . . . . . . . .. L’illiceità della causa . . . .. L’illiceità del motivo . . . La meritevolezza e la causa concreta.. .


    I RAPPORTI CON IL FALLIMENTO
    . Verifica dell’opponibilità in genere . . . . . . . .
    L’ art. 46 della legge fallimentare: il patrimonio familiare. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________

    . La tesi dottrinale prevalente . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________

    . La massa separata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . L’apprensione dei beni. . . . . . La giurisprudenza . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________

    . La critica della massa separata . . . L’art. 64 legge fallimentare: la revocatoria . . . . . . . . . .
    . La natura dell’atto costitutivo di fondo patrimoniale: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    la Cassazione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . La giurisprudenza di merito . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________

    . Critica della tesi dominante . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    1. Atti a titolo gratuito e atti di liberalità . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________8. La definizione di atto a titolo gratuito ai sensi dell’art. 64 l. fall.: atto dispositivo ed effetto pregiudizievole per i creditori concorsuali . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________

    . L’adempimento di un dovere morale. . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . La giurisprudenza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    La valutazione delle circostanze di fatto . . . . . La tesi negativa. . . . . .1. La proporzionalità. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . La nostra opinione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Art. 67 l.f.: gli atti attributivi o costitutivi del fondo a titolo oneroso . . . . . . . Altri mezzi di tutela dei creditori. La revocatoria ordinaria:
    cenni e rinvio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . Legittimazione attiva e passiva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    1. Il coniuge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I figli . . . . . . . . . . . Il fallimento dell’impresa familiare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    LA CESSAZIONE DEL FONDO

    Introduzion_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________


    . Confronto con la disciplina previgente . . . . . . Le cause tipiche di scioglimento . .. L’annullamento del matrimonio . . . . . La giurisprudenza . . . . . . . . La cessazione degli effetti civili . .. Lo scioglimento del matrimonio . . . . . . . La separazione dei coniugi . .

    . L’ammissibilità di cause di cessazione convenzionali-atipiche. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    La posizione della giurisprudenza più conservatrice.
    . .. La tesi più moderna e permissiva: dottrina e giurisprudenza . . . . . .. Esaurimento dell’oggetto e scioglimento
    volontario . . .. Differenza tra modifica, scioglimento consensuale ed esaurimento dell’oggetto . . . L’estinzione per esaurimento dell’oggetto del fondo . . . . . . .



    . Lo scioglimento per effetto di un negozio risolutivo. . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . La mala gestio del coniuge: può essere causa di
    scioglimento del fondo? . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________9.. Limiti all’autonomia privata: i figli minori e i
    creditori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. La presenza di figli minori: influenza sull’estinzione del
    fondo . . . . . . . . . .

    Interpretazione dell’art. 171 co. II c.c. . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________9.. La ratio e l’oggetto della tutela. . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________9.. Continuazione del fondo e diritti successori sul patrimonio del coniuge deceduto . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________9.. L’amministrazione . . La competenza e il procedimento . . . . Il terzo comma: ambito di operatività. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________. .

    . Interpretazione letterale e sistematica della norma. . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . La natura del provvedimento attributivo . . . . Il quarto comma . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________ . . . La trasformazione del patrimonio familiare in fondo
    patrimoniale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . La Pubblicità dello scioglimento: cenni e rinvio . . . . . .
    . La competenza in caso di scioglimento volontario. . . . .




    IL REGIME PUBBLICITARIO
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    La disciplina previgente. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . La riforma del diritto di famiglia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . La natura del fondo patrimoniale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    Il problema di coordinamento tra gli articoli 162, 163 e 2647 del codice civile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . La pubblicità in generale . . . . . . . . . . . .


    1. La pubblicità notizia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . La pubblicità dichiarativa . . La pubblicità costitutiva e la pubblicità di fatto. . La pubblicità sanante. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. La teoria dell’ efficacia dichiarativa della trascrizione in materia di convenzioni matrimoniali. . . .

    . La giurisprudenza di legittimità: Cassazione civile,sez. I, 22 gennaio 1986, n. 397. . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________

    Alcune decisioni di merito . . . . . L’alternatività delle due forme di pubblicità . . 1. La teoria che riconosce ai due strumenti pubblicitari la medesima funzione dichiarativa, macon ambiti diversi di efficacia.


    . La teoria dell’efficacia costitutiva dell’annotazione a margine dell’atto di matrimonio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    La teoria che degrada la trascrizione nei registri immobiliari
    a pubblicità-notizia: la dottrina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    La giurisprudenza di legittimità: Cassazione civile,
    sez. I, 27 novembre 1987, n. 8824 . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    La giurisprudenza di merito . . . . . L’intervento della Corte Costituzionale: sentenza
    6 aprile 1995, n. 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________._________________
    . La giurisprudenza di legittimità successiva: Cassazione civile, sez. I, 19 novembre 1999, n. 12864 e Cassazione civile, sez. I, 1o ottobre 1999, n. 10859 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
     
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